Thursday, August 27, 2020

Threats To Ict System And Organisations Information Technology Essay

Dangers To Ict System And Organizations Information Technology Essay Scanners Various techniques are utilized by individuals to assault frameworks utilizing scanners. Individuals can download scanners from the web so as to examine addresses and get data about TCP ports. Individuals can find IP addresses by mapping utilizing DNS. Programmers utilize this potential strategy guaranteeing what frameworks are dynamic and accessible to hack. Scope of addresses This is a scanner which is straightforward, visual and quick at examining as it looks for a scope of addresses. Profound test so as to uncover basic data of a gadget at that point finishing a profound test is the valuable way in addition, it can likewise be utilized when there is a remote deficiency. Examining a remote framework If there is no encryption can result remote frameworks to be truly helpless. When seeing versatile systems administration, remote passageways should be built up as they can be gotten to when associated with the PC, PDA, or portable. Windows has a component that contains an instrument that can permit you to tap on a system symbol for your remote system association. ARP harming Within the framework these are known as switch based systems that are secure as they make smaller scale sections. In any case, there is as yet an issues of assault in numerous systems. So as to handle this issue, the memory must be observed of many system by checking MAC address as they show up in areas more than once: here is an outline to support your downplaying Default Gateway Casualty Casualty Default Gateway Man in the center Enchantment circle are known to be boot plates that can be downloaded on the web to restart the PC and undercut the working framework. There are some generally excellent enchantment plates for example a definitive boot CD that can resolve issues of infections and Trojans also, drive, equipment and working framework disappointments. So as to maintain a strategic distance from anybody utilizing an enchantment plate it is essential is secret phrase lock the BIOS and furthermore USB sticks, floppy circles and CD/DVDs ought not be utilized as boot gadgets. Key lumberjacks Key lumberjacks are applications that are utilized to record key stroke likewise can be utilized for mouse exercises at that point strikingly sends the data to a document or for some situation that are frequently utilized remote system area. There are extremely hard to follow as they are covered up yet can be discovered utilizing hostile to infection programming application. On the off chance that suspecting there is a danger, run a convention scanner, which works by taking a gander at substance of each datum bundle. Access making harm information or sticking assets Unapproved access to programming can result to harmed information or limiting assets. There are assaults that can get to frameworks without the need of harming in any case, an interruption can generally affect the framework. Infection Attacks in all PC frameworks, infection assaults can happen when maverick code has entered in to the framework. Infections work by concealing themselves in conventional executable code. They can harm the framework by opening and shutting the CD/DVD entryway, trading key reactions or can spread themselves without anyone else recreating and can genuine harm the hard drive. There are infection scanners which will recognize an infection by opening the document and checking the code. Trojans are programs with a shrouded character and appear to look as a program or a document in which it tends to be ordinary or innocuous to your PC. Worms have a procedure of sending using messages from the information of your contact list. Piggybacking, Tunnels and tests Knowledge is required for information for when producing information or caricaturing and that information arrange programming dialects going from; Java, C++ or VB.NET. Programmers can hand make an information parcel all together for an application to be constrained or data parted with by server, lead to an assistance assault or piggyback/burrow in which that occurs into a framework by means of an adequate convention. Phishing and Identity robbery This is an ongoing created technique that permits unapproved to frameworks. Phising works by baiting individuals into indicating their own data in which this is done through social designing for example; when you get messages as far as anyone knows to be from banks saying ISP and so on requesting that you follow this connect to lead you to their site with the end goal for you to change your subtleties in which that can be a HTTPS which that can be in operational. Catastrophic events Natural calamities can happen to numerous frameworks running from power blackout, flood or fire prompting genuine significant harm. Associations have PC frameworks that are explicitly worked to adapt to these arrangement of issues. The catastrophe strategy have a few different ways to execute the accompanying: Remote stockpiling of all information to be done in day by day back up Duplication of basic servers Noxious harm continually there are pernicious harms happening inside and outside to frameworks. Noxious harm can be brought about by outside programmers. The programmers at that point assault the frameworks. There are numerous security methods of forestalling this nonetheless, programmers consistently figure out how to do what they specialize in. Specialized Failure There is consistently specialized disappointment that happens a great deal now at days for example when cut off stockpiles are lost, or terrible web association that can make interruption the entire association. The huge utilization of system innovation for example voice, video and CCTV can prompt a business harm and disturb the security of the framework. Human Errors Human mistakes happen unusually in any case, it happens regularly due numerous things for example being careless, uninformed, or having absence of information. This at that point results to framework disappointment. Clients can neglect to back up information which at that point prompts loss of information is something happens to the framework and so on. Robbery An Organization or people can be harmed intensely in which that can be durable effect because of burglary of information. Robbery happens in the digital sense where that is known as to hack, or genuinely evacuating information by CD/DVDs, memory sticks and so forth. Respectability and culmination of information This is a basic issue uprightness and fulfillment of information as harmed can be caused if there is inaccurate information. Off base information can result to trouble and lawful activity particularly the information in clinical records, police frameworks just as credit reports. You have to have suitable individuals to check the information accurately perhaps of clients or individual subtleties by asking a partner or client to check if right. Physical Security Frameworks can be sheltered with the most recent the most recent enemy of infection and firewall in any case, that is all futile on the off chance that anybody can approach the cut off room and figures out how to get basic information on to a USB memory stay by duplicating the information. In associations there ought to be security includes that should be available; lock and key security, gear identificatyion, CCTV, Detection of interruption and so forth. Lock and Key Security There is a need to make sure about gadgets, for example, PCs by embeddings a latch chain. In structures there are numerous locks and key frameworks that works a framework that is ace/submaster framework. Gear Identification this includes taken properties distinguished for example if a PC from school/school is taken, it very well may be recognized from the checking plainly demonstrating proprietorship and beginning which can prompt indictment. Gear can be distinguished using permanent ink which names the property of the proprietor where it is undetectable and bright touchy ink. CCTV (Closed circuit TV) This includes cameras utilized all day, every day in checking individuals or occasions. There are a few favorable circumstances to its utilization for example, focal focuses that are unified can be checked, a record of every minute of every day occasions are kept up, and finally referencing that CCTV is at present to forestall terrible conduct to happen. Interruption discovery frameworks interruption location are utilized by numerous associations which can recognize human nearness from various perspectives. The work through different ways for example, body heat is detected by aloof infrared, distinguish numerous developments using amplifiers, entryways and windows have circuit breakers for get to and so on. Staff guest distinguishing proof frameworks numerous from little to huge associations have frameworks that can recognize staff or guests so as to forestall obscure individuals to get to. Individuals can be recognized using personality cards in which it is an absolute necessity for everybody in the premises to wear them. Biometrics Biometrics includes the utilization of finger printing to perceive, retinal outputs and voice acknowledgment. Unique finger impression acknowledgment this biometric structure is ordinarily utilized in distinguishing in wrongdoing scenes. Our fingers contain a water arrangement which empowers the discovery on finger printing to work. There are a few scanners that fingerprints by identifying edges in our fingers. Finger printing can likewise work in ID for identifications and visa. Retinal Scans The retina is situated at the back of the eye and it is fundamentally the same as a unique mark as it contains interesting setup. In any case, there is a distinction between them as a unique finger impression can be changed when the skin is evacuated through cuts or consumes while it is inconceivable for the retina to be changed except if somebody endeavors to alter the eye bow which is profoundly improbable. Iris filtering This is another one of a kind recognizable proof eye technique which is the iris. The contrast between the retina is that the iris can be filtered when the beneficiary is wearing glasses or contact focal points. Voice Recognition This type of biometric isn't as a rule ordinarily utilized as voice can change because of different purposes behind example on the off chance that somebody is poorly, focused or has a throat disease that can influence someones voice. Programming and system security Associations all need to have security, strategies to oversee information and innovations so as to battle interruption and superverion of PCs that are organizing to forestall information being harmed or assets being influenced. Encryption includes the transformation text, pictures and media data in to an arrangement. RSA encryption is

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Workplace Communication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Work environment Communication - Essay Example They have imparted their booking about the O-ring’s potential for disappointment yet as the debacle would tell, they couldn't send their message across adequately. The dispatch despite everything initiated prompting the blast of the Shuttle only seconds after the dispatch. It turned out to be evident that the Challenger Disaster was a correspondence issue as detailed by the discoveries of Roger Commission, the body that was framed by President Ronald Reagan to research the blast. The consequence of the examination indicated that the individuals in the phone gathering from Marshal Space Flight Center had distinctive comprehension of the message that the architects were attempting to pass on which is the reason the Shuttle was still propelled regardless of the engineer’s reservation. The Columbia Shuttle flight 107 calamity may have an alternate situation from the Shuttle Challenger yet it despite everything wound up in a fiasco simply like its antecedent. The basic guilty party is again miscommunication. Once more, the specialists had communicated their booking about the froth preceding the Columbia dispatch. Be that as it may, they couldn't convey its message to the best possible specialists adequately so the dispatch was still started finishing off with a similar disaster. Both the terrible accounts of Space Shuttle Challenger and Columbia showed me the significance of conveying my message obviously and totally, however I ought to likewise consider if my messages are contacting the target group at an ideal time and opportunity. This story might be amusing however once in a while working with senior residents in the workplace can have comical ramifications. I took a mid year work previously and this is the place my experience occurred. Our supervisor would already be able to be considered as a senior resident yet he is as yet energetic at work. Once, I was approached to compose a report for a month to month meeting which I joyfully obliged. I accumulated every one of my information at the workplace and told my supervisor that I will have it done constantly and will send

Friday, August 21, 2020

Biology Extended Essay Sample - How To Use Them To Your Advantage

Biology Extended Essay Sample - How To Use Them To Your AdvantageBiology Extended Essay samples are great sources of ideas and knowledge for any person looking to add some extra work to their final paper. Many science educators do not have time to write a research paper or even know where to begin. This article is going to explore how you can use Biology Extended Essay samples in order to write your paper properly and with ease.In order to understand biology, you need to know what the biological process is, and how it operates. If you have no background in biology and you want to write a paper on what is happening in the plant world, there are several books that are very helpful. If you are a scientist, you might even consider purchasing an Extramural Biology textbook.These books are helpful in that they have plenty of essay samples. The sample sentences will help you visualize what each one will be about. They will also provide you with clear definitions and make you understand the ideas you are going to be describing.While using these sample essays is a good idea, if you are not sure of what a certain term means, or you do not know how to write an essay, you can always hire a tutor to help you out. This can be a bit expensive, but it is worth it in the end. Remember, it is always a good idea to at least understand the basic concepts that the syllabus outlines, so that you do not make any mistakes.A great way to get started on a Biology Extended Essay sample is to just read a book about the subject matter. You can also go online and get some sample papers written by others. You should read each one carefully, before you copy them, so that you understand how each works and what you should add to them to make them better.Once you have read a book on the topic and gotten a feel for the topic, you can move onto online sources and get some real life examples of the biological process. There are some very informative blogs out there that you can read through. Often, people who are writing are putting up their writings as a form of advertisement.Reading other blogs will allow you to see the examples that other people have used. You can also just get your hands on a Biology Extended Essay sample and start working on it. If you try to come up with new ideas on your own, without a reference, you are not going to come up with as many ideas as you would if you had taken the time to read the samples.It is not difficult to get yourself a book or an online sample. As long as you take the time to go through the steps of researching and finding a resource, you will be able to write your own essay. If you are already familiar with the subject matter and have a decent amount of background information, you can just look for samples and write your essay from scratch. There is nothing wrong with trying this, especially if you have nothing else that you can use.

Monday, May 25, 2020

A Longitudinal Analysis Of Diet Quality Scores - 981 Words

Sà ¡nchez-Villegas, Almudena et al. A Longitudinal Analysis Of Diet Quality Scores And The Risk Of Incident Depression In The SUN Project. BMC Medicine 13.1 (2015): n. pag. Web. 26 Mar. 2016. Recent research has found that depression may be linked to our diets and nutritional intakes through the food we eat. This study compared 3 different diets: the Mediterranean diet, the Pro-vegetarian Dietary Pattern and Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 in their research and found that diets with more seeds, nuts, fruits and vegetables seems to be correspondent with a positive mind, where are excessive sugar and processed meat in one’s diet showed more signs of depression. This belief goes hand in hand with Traditional Chinese Medicine where it is believed that what the body takes in not only effects the body but also the mind. Beinfield, Harriet, and Efrem Korngold. Traditional Chinese Medicine: Chinese Medicine: How It Works. Web. 26 Mar. 2016. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been around for over twenty-three centuries and is based on a very traditional belief of yin and yang, where everything is balanced. In this type of medicine it is believed that illnesses, injuries, pain, etc. are caused by an imbalance of some sort. For diagnoses the outer body reflects the inner body therefore Chinese medicine practitioners will look at certain parts of the outer body to find what is wrong in the inner body. Practitioners also take into consideration ones diet,Show MoreRelatedAnalyzing The Association Between Intake Of Different Types Of Beverages And Obesity Outcomes1301 Words   |  6 PagesIn this study, we conducted multivariate linear regression analysis to examine the association between intake of different types of beverages and obesity outcomes in children and adults. We found out that, SSB intake in both children and adults had the significant contribution to obesity outcomes. This positive association is consistent with p revious studies reporting a strong positive dose-response relationship between intake of SSB and adiposity among Australian and Danish children (12, 21), andRead MoreCross Sectional Study In Health1273 Words   |  6 Pagesexamine the risk factors of CVD among governmental employees in Bahrain and raise awareness about the importance of developing appropriate preventative policies and measures; to decrease the preventable risky behaviors such as â€Å"tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and harmful use of alcohol† leading to CVD (AL-Nooh et al., 2014). Methods The study was cross sectional and had a total of 1139 participants who worked in a governmental office. Furthermore, cardiac patients and pregnant womenRead MoreThe Frequency of Social and Intellectual Activities Within Young Adults and Their Influences on Cognitive Functioning1759 Words   |  7 Pagesto assess their memory, reasoning, planning and concentration. A self-reported questionnaire will also be administered to measure their social and intellectual engagement. This research is very important as it could provide a better well-being and quality of life for young adults. The knowledge of these associations also helps promote more successful and healthy cognitive ageing. â€Æ' RESEARCH BACKGROUND By 2035, those aged 65 and over are estimated to outnumber those under the age of 16 by almostRead MoreTri-Component Attitude Model1148 Words   |  5 Pages Attitudinal Attitudinal Processing CentralCentral-Route Processing (High-Effort): (High– Object attitudes are based on conscious and elaborate analysis. – Results in strong, easily accessible, and confidently held attitudes. PeripheralPeripheral-Route Processing (Low-Effort): (Low– Object attitudes are not based on an elaborate analysis, rather a low effort assessment. – Consumer attitudes can be more easily changed. Central Processing: Thoughts and Attitudes Cognitive CognitiveRead MoreFast Food Has A High Energy Density And Low Nutrient Profile1554 Words   |  7 Pagesand 94th percentiles indicates overweight, while a percentile equal to or greater than 95th diagnoses obesity. Environmental and behavioral determinants are associated with psychosocial and health complications among children and adolescents; Healthy diet, family-based intervention, and physical activity are methods of prevention and treatment that should be implemented as early as infancy. The risk for childhood obesity begins as early as prenatal exposure, is influenced by parental weight, and continuesRead MoreThe Effect Of Sleep On Hemoglobin Glucose Levels Among Children And Teens1287 Words   |  6 Pagesdiabetes earlier. The rate of type II diabetes in the U.S.A increased by 217% in the 0-44 year old age group between 1990 and 2009 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Several factors increase the risk of developing type II diabetes, including diet, exercise, genetics, and sleep. Less knowingly, prolonged lack of sleep severely damages humans’ health. Sleep and one’s circadian rhythm contribute to maintaining blood glucose homeostasis (ACAM). Through this experiment, we will study the effectRead MoreAnalysis Of Leventhal s Model Of Self Regulation1949 Words   |  8 Pagesillness, for instance quality of life. A large study of 1785 adults in primary care found that patients’ illness perceptions could predict self-reported health st atus up to two years after the initial medical consultation (Frostholm et al. 2007). Patients were assessed based on the Illness Perception Questionnaire. Furthermore, baseline illness perceptions formed of a long time frame, severe consequences and pessimistic emotional responses particularly translated to worse quality of life both at 12Read MoreIt has been suggested that one way in which low SES affects health and blood pressure of blacks is2100 Words   |  9 Pagesdisease, while those who consume diets high in trans fat or refined sugars and sugary beverages are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and hypertension (Ver Ploeg et al. 2009). According to several health organizations, including the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (Chobanian et al. 2003) and the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks (ISHIB) (Douglas et al. 2003), diets such as the Dietary ApproachesRead MoreBody Sat isfaction Is Defined As An Individual s Perception Of The Body Essay2307 Words   |  10 Pages However, the changes in puberty may also lead to anxiety associating with different parts of the body (e.g an individual will not feel comfortable about the growth of facial hair or their size of their body parts) (Davies Furnham, 1986). This analysis on individuals’ body satisfaction has become an important area to examine in personality research nowadays. The current study’s concern of body satisfaction is the conceptualization of personality traits, which can be analysed by its relationshipRead MoreSample Lit Review on Hypertension11736 Words   |  47 Pageshypertension and hyperlipidaemia and their relation to risk factors including age, gender, genetics, diet and weight, alcohol, smoking, lack of activity and co-morbidity. It also examines mediating factors including economic factors, stress/personality, medications, lifestyle modifications and complementary therapies including foot reflexology and foot massage. Finally, it reviews outcomes (quality of life) including physiological, psychological and socioeconomic changes. 2.1 Background to the literature

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Design Elements And Principles Of Art - 1173 Words

This simple but intricate piece of art can be found on the walls of the second floor in the CFA. Although the fan is fairly small and often times over looked, when examined, its fine detail gives it character. This paper will address all aspects of design elements and principles. In addition provide information about the artist and how their background influenced the art, and choice of design. Line, Dimension, and Quality The first thing that can be noticed about this piece of art work is the accordion (the span of a fan when completely unfolded). Most hand held fans are known to have the opening with of at the most 180 degrees, with some form of fabric or string holding each leaf (the individual slices of a fan) together. However what made this fan different from other generic fans is that it was folded. This implies that the artist spent time folding the paper back and forth with delicacy and focus. The folds also tell me about dimension. Even though the fan was stretched out it was clear that the fan folded where the creases were. I could tell that the hinges (where two leaves meet) are not very far apart, which means if the fan was to be closed, it would be very thick. Ironically the image painted on the fan, and the fan as a whole has some characteristic that would fall into one of the four categories of shape. The most prominent would be natural and no-objective. The artist clearly communicates the scenery of nature. The scenery illustrated on the fan is a greatShow MoreRelatedThe Seven Principles Of Art1012 Words   |  5 Pagesand understanding of the seven principles of art. â€Å"The principal of art are the guidelines or the organizing factors in the visual arts that help artists to create designs and control how viewers likely react to art images and objects.† The topics that are included in this chapter are unity and variety; proportion; balance; emphasis; pattern and repetition; rhythm and movement. All of these topics demonstrates how they tie in with one another to create a piece of art. To elaborate more on the topicsRead MorePrinciples Of Art : Claude Monet1183 Words   |  5 Pageshistory of art. He tirelessly painted the same series of works, only with minor changes related to the amount of light and the type of weather. In terms of themes, Monet would paint outdoor scenes while bearing in mind the effects of atmosphere, time of day, and season upon color and light. For many of his works, a person will find that Monet experiments with the color spectrum, demonstrating how the shades of the same color affect the human eye. 2. How is this artist employing the Principles of OrganizationRead MoreA Portrait Of Rostam Khan Zand1182 Words   |  5 PagesPersian period. This oil painting represents Sadiq’s art style, and it also affects to royal Qajar portraiture. ( This piece of painting original location is Royal Persian Painting, the Qajar Epoch from 1795 to 1925, then it was exhibited at Brooklyn Museum of Art on October 23, 1998 to January 24, 1999, and now it is located in the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston in 2015. The piece is oil painting on canvasRead MoreAnalysis of the Painting Great Detonators by Acamonchi830 Words   |  3 PagesContemporary art is the art created in the present time. Today, artists affected by the social context and personal experiences reproduce pieces of art that question or make a point about controversial issues in our society. A great example is the painting created in 2006 called Great Detonators (â€Å"Grandes Detonadores†) by the Mexican artist Acamonchi. The painting is located in the exhibition The Very large Array: San Diego/ Tijuana Artist in the Peter C. Farrell Gallery inside the Museum of ContemporaryRead MoreEssay on Analysis of The Great Wave off Kanagawa by Hokusai1732 Words   |  7 Pagesdecided to extend the series to 46 pieces. The original piece was created around 1830 and was published in 1832 by Nishimuraya Yohachi. Within this paper, I will be discussing the analysis of this print while connecting my findings to the elements and principles of design. The lines within this print are dynamic and static. Dynamic lines are lines that flow smoothly, they are appealing to the viewer’s eyes and our eyes automatically follow these lines. The dynamic lines within this print are the curvedRead MoreInterior designers Vision1015 Words   |  5 Pagesgive your views on this sentence: ‘As designers we learn from everything we look at provided that our vision is clear and perceptive.’ Is this vision confined to interior design only, or may it be applied to anything? S. Hayward - February 2012 ï ¿ ¼ A clear and perceptive vision is not in my belief confined to interior design, it can be found in many fields. An experienced and well trained practitioner will need a clear and perceptive vision to manage many situations that require a creative applicationRead MoreMaster Was An Italian Artist858 Words   |  4 Pagesilluminated rule of Saint Benedict in Oxford at the Bodleian Library. He is known as an artist that create figured that are both elegant and emotionally impressive. These kinds of art was made during the Gothic period that marks a transition from medieval to Renaissance. It was the time when churches had religious disputes. Gothic art in Italy transitioned in to the Renaissance. The Gothic period was strongly influenced by the Dominican and Franciscan monks. The Renaissance brought contemporary reality ofRead MoreThe Artist Zaha Mohammad Hadid1065 Words   |  5 Pagesmediums that she used for building are such as Glass, Aluminum, Stainless Steel, GRG (glass reinforced gypsum), and Terrazzo (â€Å"Galaxy Soho,† 2012). Zaha Hadid’s style is organic, contemporary and innovative. She founded an international architecture and design called Zaha Hadid Architects. Their studio is located in 10 Bowling Green Lane, London, United Kingdom. Mainly, designing and architecting unique and spectacular buildings are the major work that she and her employees are working on the daily basicRead MoreArt, Art And Art915 Words   |  4 PagesArt, one of the most important ways for individuals to express their thoughts and feelings about things. Painting is one of the many artistic forms used to communicate the aforementioned. Paintings are often displayed at museums or art galleries in order to allow people to admire them and analyze their meaning. A painting that is displayed at the Albright-Knox art gallery in Buffalo, New York is La Vie Paysanne. French-Russian artist, Marc Chagall, painted La Vie Paysanne in the year 1925. InRead MoreThe Art Of Islamic Art1548 Words   |  7 Pages Islamic art is based upon the themes of unity, logic and order. It is grounded on philosophies of geometry, symbolism and a reflection of the doctrine between the physical and spiritual world. Bourgoin (1868) saw Islamic art as a similarity between geometrical schemes and crystal systems of certain minerals. He believed that Islamic art did not comprise of any ‘natural’ object, but rather it is an arrangement of ‘pure abstract forms’. Furthermore, Bourgoin understood the aesthetic of Islamic

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Instructional Methodology Picture Exchange Communication...

Instructional Methodology Picture Exchange Communication System is one of the most effective strategies to improve communication skills in children with ASD. It involves skills and activities that lead to independence and that involve powerful motivation that drives learning. The skills learned are immediately useful and will continue to be useful in many different settings. PECS is an approach that teaches early communication skills using pictures. The child hands a picture to the adult and hands it to the adult. The adult, in turns, gives the child the item. For example, a child would give a picture of a banana to an adult; the adult would give the child an actual banana. PECS helps a child more easily get what they want instead of crying or acting out their frustrations. As has been shown in children with ASD, material reinforcers are more powerful than social rewards. PECS helps children with ASD learn to approach adults and peers in socially appropriate ways. As the therapy goes on, the child can develop whole sentences. For example, a child could choose a picture symbolizing â€Å"I want† (words are also included) and â€Å"outside† mean that the child wants to go outside. The therapist will model the words and, in many instances, the child will verbally imitate the therapist. As mandated under the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 which is embedded in IDEA, â€Å"assistive technology means any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially, off the shelf,Show MoreRelatedHow Autism Spectrum Disorder ( Pecs ) Essay1697 Words   |  7 PagesSPA 3472 November 1, 2016 Using Pictures to Communicate There are many different obstacles autism spectrum individuals have to overcome in their daily lives; social insecurities, eye contact, appropriate spatial awareness etc. But in most cases, their biggest hurdle is mostly their communication skills; it’s been shown that communication impairment is at the heart of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that children with ASD can show a wide range of communication skills as discussed by Agius andRead MoreAction Research for Schools1323 Words   |  5 Pagesunder 1. Action research is based on scientific inquiry; 2. Study or examine a local issue; 3. Action research focuses on problems that are of immediate concern; 4. It involves practical problem solving approach; 5. It is seeking to understand social systems and the process of change within them; 6. Designed and conducted by practitioners; 7. Collect data, analyze, and make decisions; 8. Change practice based on the data; 9. Share with colleagues. Objectives of Action Research †¢ To improve school environmentRead MoreThe Influence of Instructional Facilities on Students’ Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State11042 Words   |  45 Pages Instructional facilities †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦15 The importance of instructional facilities in teaching and learning†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.27 Importance of resources availability in secondary schools †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..33 Academic performance concepts†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦46 Importance of resources to the concept of academic performances†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.....................51 Appraisal of literature†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.53 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY ResearchRead MoreThe Verbal Behaviour ( Vb ) Approach1755 Words   |  8 Pagesreinforce effectiveness/ value) (Lesson 5, ppt, Slide- 8). And therefore utilizes six variables as an integral part of the teaching procedure that include Errorless teaching, Most-to-least Prompts, Variable Ratio of Reinforcement, Mix and Vary instructional Demands, Intersperse Easy and Hard Demands and lastly Fluency , using discrete trail teaching as well as Natural Environment Teaching for carrying out effective and efficient teaching ( Lesson 5, ppt, Slide-15) This chart representation will helpRead MoreCommunicative Language Teaching and Audio-Lingual Method3681 Words   |  15 Pages† The Audio-Lingual Method, or the Army Method, is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages. It is based on behaviorist theory, which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement—correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait would receive negative feedback. Historically, CLT has been seen as a response to the Audio-Lingual Method (ALM). Relation between CommunicativeRead MoreDevelopment Of English Language Teaching2725 Words   |  11 Pages Great attention has been paid to the development of English Language Teaching (ELT) in China in the last few decades since English plays an increasingly important role in social, cultural and technical exchanges between China and the rest of the world (Jin Cortazzi, 2002; Wu, 2001; Qin, 1999). 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Hypothesis Testing free essay sample

Introduction The data for the first test to be conducted by our group consists of the prices of residential properties in various locations. The locations are Toronto, San Francisco and Montreal. The values of the samples are all represented in Canadian Dollars. The data taken are based on the residential property prices on January 8th 2012. Our group will execute a test to determine if there is a significant difference in the mean residential property prices for Toronto, San Francisco and Montreal. Furthermore, if the tests conclude that there is a difference in mean prices, our group will indicate where the prices are higher or lower. Hypothesis Testing For this data set, our group has chosen to conduct a one way Analysis of Variance F test (one-way ANOVA F-test). A one-way ANOVA F-test is appropriate in this example since it is a hypothesis technique that is used to compare means from three or more populations. Since the data set reflects the mean prices of residential properties in Toronto, San Francisco and Montreal, a one way ANOVA F-test is sufficient. By having at least three samples in the data, our group has eliminated the idea of testing the claim by using different tests, such as a â€Å"two sample T-test†, a â€Å"paired sample T-test† or a â€Å"two sample Z test. † In order for a one way Analysis of Variance F test to be conducted, the following conditions must be met: (1) Each sample must be selected from a normal, or approximately normal, population. (2) The samples must be independent and randomly selected. (3) Each population must have the same variance. Looking at the conditions stated above, all the samples provided by the Toronto Real Estate Board reflect data from that are randomly selected, which are independent of each other. That is, there is no correlation between the sample groups. Our group has constructed three box plots to test the normality of the sample values, one for each location. Similar to a t test, the F test is fairly non-sensitive to slight departure from normality. Since the box plots do not indicate extreme differences from a normal distribution, we can assume that the samples are selected from a normal population. The third condition states that the variances of the sample groups are equal. Therefore, our group will conduct a Levene’s Test for Homogeneity of Variance using SPSS program to test whether the data set satisfies the third assumption. Results from Levene Test Null Hypothesis:? 12 = ? 22 = ? 32 Alternative Hypothesis:? 12, ? 22, ? 32are not all equal *Ho for this instance is the claim, since Ho is a statement of equality ?12 represents the variance for the population of residential properties in Toronto, ? 22 represents the variance for the population of residential properties in San Francisco and ? 32 represents the variance for the population of residential properties in Montreal. (? =0. 05) Using the data from SPSS output, the P-value (represented by â€Å"Sig. † – Oneway DataSet 1\residential sales. sav) found on the first table – Test of Homogeneity of Variances is 0. 549. Since P-value ? ; fail to reject Ho Therefore, at 5% level of significance, there is insufficient evidence to indicate that the claim that all the variances of the samples provided are equal is false. All the conditions are therefore satisfied, and our group can proceed with the one way analysis of variance F test. Since all the conditions for a one way analysis of variance are satisfied, then the sampling distribution can now be approximated by the F distribution. Our group can now execute a one way Analysis of Variance F test by using a Post-Hoc Comparison Procedure to test the claim that â€Å"there is a significant difference in the mean residential property prices for Toronto, San Francisco and Montreal. † Null Hypothesis: µ1 =  µ2 =  µ3 Alternative Hypothesis:At least one mean is different. *Ha for this instance is the claim, since Ha is a statement of inequality Parameters  µ1 represents the mean residential property price in Toronto.  µ2 represents the mean residential property price in San Francisco, while  µ3 represents the mean residential property price in Montreal. The null hypothesis suggests that there is no difference between the means of the three samples, while the claim in the alternative hypothesis suggests that at least one mean is different. Since no level of significance was given, we assume that: ? = 0. 05 Conclusion Using the data from SPSS output, the P-value (represented by â€Å"Sig. † – One Way DataSet 1\residential sales. sav) found on the second table – ANOVA is 0. 140. Since P-Value ? ; fail to reject Ho Therefore, at 5% level of significance, there is insufficient evidence to indicate that the claim that there is a significant difference in the mean residential property prices for Toronto, San Francisco and Montreal is true. *Full SPSS Output can be found in the appendix section of the report. Part B – Difference in Lot Sizes for Residential Properties in Toronto and Vancouver Introduction The data for the second test to be conducted by our group consists of lot sizes of the residential properties that are up for sale in Toronto and Vancouver. The samples are represented in m2 (metres squared; area of the land in which the residential properties are built on). The data taken are based on the properties that are up for sale as of January 8th 2012. Our group will execute a test to determine if there is a significant difference in the lot sizes for the residential properties for sale in Toronto and Vancouver, as commissioned by the Toronto Real Estate Board. Hypothesis Testing For this data set, our group has chosen to conduct a two sample T-test. A two sample T-test is appropriate in this case because of the attempt in determining the difference between two population means when the population standard deviations are unknown. Furthermore, the data given reflects independent samples. That is, the sample selected from the population in Toronto is not related to the sample from the population in Vancouver. In order for a two sample T-test for difference of means with small independent samples to be conducted, the following conditions must be met: (1) The samples must be randomly selected. (2) The samples must be independent. (3) Each population must have a normal distribution with an unknown standard deviation. Since there is no correlation between the sample groups (Toronto and Vancouver lot sizes), a paired T-test cannot be conducted for this data set. Also, since there are exactly only two means that are being compared in the given case, and not means between three or more populations, a one-way analysis of variances test (one way ANOVA) cannot be used. Looking at the conditions stated above, the samples provided by the Toronto Real Estate Board are randomly selected and independent. By checking the normality in each of the populations, our group constructed two separate box plots for Toronto and Vancouver respectively. There is no significant evidence to conclude that both the populations are not normally distributed since the box plots resemble a normal distribution. Having the conditions satisfied, our group can proceed to execute a two sample T-test for difference of means with small independent samples in testing the claim that â€Å"there is a significant difference in the lot sizes for the residential properties for sale in Toronto and Vancouver,† as commissioned by the Toronto Real Estate Board. Null Hypothesis: µ1 =  µ2 Alternative Hypothesis: µ1 ?  µ2 *Ha for this instance is the claim, since Ha is a statement of inequality Parameters  µ1 represents the mean lot size for the first population, Toronto.  µ2 represents the mean lot size for properties for sale in Vancouver. The alternative hypothesis states that there is a significant difference between the lot sizes for the properties for sale in Toronto and Vancouver. Consequently, the null hypothesis represents a statement of equality, that the lot sizes of the properties in Toronto and Vancouver are equal. Since no level of significance was given, we assume that: ? = 0. 05 In order to distinguish whether the variances are equal or not equal, which is significant in attempting a two sample T test for difference of means for small independent samples, our group will use the SPSS output from the Levene’s Test of Equality of Variances. Results from Levene Test Null Hypothesis:? 12 = ? 22 Alternative Hypothesis:? 12 ? ?22 *Ho for this instance is the claim, since Ho is a statement of equality ?12 represents the variance for the population of lot sizes of properties for sale in Toronto while ? 22 represents the variance for the population of lot sizes of properties in San Francisco. (? =0. 05) For the purpose of this test, the claim states that the variances of the two populations are equal, as represented by Ho Using the data from SPSS output, the P-value (represented by â€Å"Sig. † – T-Test DataSet 0\LotSizes. sav) found on the second table table – Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances is 0. 000. Since P-value ? ; reject Ho Therefore, at 5% level of significance, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that the claim that the variances of the two populations are equal is false. For the purpose of the two sample T test, all results will be based on the assumption that variances are not equal. Conclusion Using the data from SPSS output, the P-value (represented by â€Å"Sig. † – T-Test DataSet 0\LotSizes. sav) found on the third table – t-test for Equality of Means (Equal Variances not assumed) is 0. 0455. (calculated as 0. 091/2, since it is a two-tailed test) Since P-Value ? ; reject Ho Therefore, at 5% level of significance, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that the claim that there is a significant difference in the lot sizes for residential properties in Toronto and Vancouver is true. *Full SPSS Output can be found in the appendix section of the report. Part C – Difference in Incomes: New York homebuyers vs Toronto homebuyers Introduction The data for the third test to be conducted by our group consists of family incomes in Toronto and New York. The samples are paired by the value of the homes purchased. (For example, the first pair in the data set shows the income of the household in Toronto and New York, whether the home cost $500 000, $200 000 or $750 000, etc. It is of great significance to point out that for each pair, the homes purchased in Toronto are of the same value as the homes purchased in New York. ) The data only reflects the incomes of the homebuyers in which, the values are represented in Canadian Dollars. Our group will execute a test for the purpose of distinguishing whether the incomes of families who had purchased homes in New York was significantly higher than the incomes of families from Toronto who had purchased homes of the same value. Hypothesis Testing For this data set, our group have chosen to conduct a paired T-test. A t-test is a statistical test that compares the means of two groups of observations. For this instance, the data are classified into the groups: family income in Toronto, and family income in New York. In order for a paired T-test to be conducted, the following conditions must be met: (1) Samples must be randomly selected. (2) Samples must be dependent. (3) Both populations must be normally distributed. Unlike the two sample T-test for small independent samples conducted in the second data set: ‘Part B’, our group have used the paired T-test to account for the correlation between the groups; that the family incomes displayed in the data set are used under the assumption that the same value of the homes purchased are used to gather the sample in Toronto and New York. A one way ANOVA F-test cannot be used for this data set since only two means are being evaluated. A different method of valuation would be used if one of the conditions listed above are not met. For example, if the data set reflects values that are independent of each other, similar to the case in ‘Part B’, then a paired T-test cannot be used. However, in this case, the conditions stated above are met. The samples are randomly selected and as stated before, dependent variables. Assuming that the family incomes are normally distributed, a paired T-test can be used. To check for the assumption of normality in each of the two populations, our group has created a box plot for each of the sample groups. For both of the samples, there appears to be only a slight offset from normality. Therefore, the assumption that these populations are normally distributed can be assumed. Having all three conditions satisfied, our group believes that a paired T-test is the best method of valuation to distinguish, as required by the Toronto Real Estate Board whether the claim that â€Å"the incomes of families who purchased houses in New York are significantly higher than the incomes of families who purchased houses of similar value in Toronto. † Null Hypothesis: µd ? 0 Alternative Hypothesis: µd 0 *Ha for this instance is the claim, since Ha is a statement of inequality Parameters  µd represents the mean difference. The mean difference is calculated by subtracting the total  µ of the incomes of homebuyers in Toronto (off the sample) from the total  µ of the incomes of homebuyers in New York (off the sample). In the claim as stated in the alternative hypothesis, the mean difference between the data on New York and Toronto (respectively) is greater than zero. Consequently, the null hypothesis represents the mean difference between the data on New York and Toronto (respectively) is less than or equal to zero. Since no level of significance was given, we assume that: ? = 0. 05 Conclusion Using the data from SPSS output, the P-value (represented by â€Å"Sig. † – T-Test DataSet 0\incomes. sav) found on the fifth table – Paired Samples Test is 0. 00002. (calculated as 0. 00004/2) Since P-Value ? ; reject Ho Therefore, at 5% level of significance, there is sufficient evidence to support the claim that the incomes of families who purchased houses in New York are significantly higher than the incomes of families who purchased houses of similar value in Toronto. *Full SPSS Output can be found in the appendix section of the report. Appendix – A Data Sets Part A – Residential Property Prices, on January 8th 2012 (in Canadian Dollars) Toronto San Francisco Montreal 720001 597114 260976 250025 350000 1141734 531968 693303 150024 391546 350140 157679 253440 397924 150000 251929 684874 1021251 1181788 350000 1123663 1040350 372008 158139 259516 432300 150000 250000 1194071 237032 1299055 350073 153574 279536 920792 150160 250001 935680 150044 257339 1394330 994698 253829 350000 150000 256582 350053 167171 250002 350748 968300 509638 755749 536302 375351 1083741 170861 268679 350056 1192483 250661 365259 303747 250000 399823 497641 1281119 350045 151925 721976 786536 150000 250002 409025 150359 255660 358312 150004 665974 352342 979221 1236283 1225525 150003 250003 790511 299575 609906 350000 159163 Part B – Lot Sizes of Properties for Sale, on January 8th 2012 (in m2) Toronto Vancouver 114 117 262 129 329 120 104 118 285 128 101 159 194 212 112 222 187 114 98 129 100 116 251 197 99 123 333 116 235 137 148 115 211 175 299 118 107 117 106 127 108 104 130 102 147 Part C – Family Income Paired by Purchase Price (in Canadian Dollars) Pair Toronto New York 1 72068 124174 2 70336 68999 3 106144 113291 4 66032 38411 5 68221 75876 6 68241 106390 7 72555 83540 8 107401 131762 9 107633 121399 10 65647 60630 11 73041 100185 12 101180 158397 13 69264 77775 14 120293 127590 15 81531 99192 16 165996 179133 17 105039 123537 18 67512 80347 19 97143 129711 20 71947 92019 21 77992 77580 22 90858 107446 23 142215 203356 24 101219 128540 25 92541 122134 Appendix B – SPSS Data Output The following are printed from the SPSS program. The following tables show results from various tests conducted in an attempt to determine the validity of three separate claims, as commissioned by the Toronto Real Estate Board. The tables are arranged in accordance with the order in which the tests were conducted in, with the order being the following: (1) One way ANOVA test, containing a Test of Homogeneity of Variances and Post Hoc Comparison Method – Part A (Residential Property Price – Multiple Comparisons; Toronto, San Francisco and Montreal) (2) T-test for Equality of Means for Independent Samples, containing Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances – Part B (Lot Sizes of Properties for Sale in Toronto and Vancouver) (3) T-test for Paired Samples – Part C (Family Incomes paired by Purchase Price in Toronto and New York) *All SPSS Outputs are located in the pages following.